Glucosamine is a water-soluble amino monosaccharide and one of the most abundant monosaccharides in the human body. It is present in high quantities in articular cartilage, being a normal constituent of GAGs in cartilage matrix and also in the synovial fluid. It is a constituent of keratan sulphate. There are two forms: Glucosamine sulphate (GS) and Glucosamine hydrochloride (GH).
The way that exogenous administration of Glucosamine may work in Osteoarthritis is not yet fully defined. It is believed that Glucosamine may have an important role in regulating the anabolic processes of cartilage and also in the synthesis of synovial fluid. Additionally it may inhibit the degenerative and catabolic process of Osteoarthritis with its anti-inflammatory and even antioxidant properties.